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Saturday, June 14th, 2014 | 

Finally, I’ve met her: The bee orchid at the Rhine port of Basel which has been described as Ophrys apifera var. basiliensis – in 2006, Paul Delforge “downgraded” her to Ophrys apifera f. basiliensis.

Ophrys apifera var. basiliensis

My Swiss friend Klaus Hess has told me a couple of years ago about this special population of bee orchids. Now we met at Basel and took the bus to a place called Waldhaus. There, we walked to the bank of the Rhine. Between the railway tracks and the river, limited between the container terminal to the West and the old Auhafen to the East, there is a small strip of grassland quite rich with species. Dominated by Bromus erectus, there is also growing Knautia arvensis, Geranium pyrenaicum, Leucanthemum vulgare and other flowers.

Basel Rheinhafen

Soon Klaus found the first of these special bee orchids. They are special not only due to their lack of pigments, but also to the special form of the petals. Those are sepaloid, much longer and broader than usual with bee orchids. We are just in the beginning of the flowering time. As Klaus was looking for further plants I studied the flower with my camera – and observed the rare visit of an Andrena bee at a bee orchid. It was just a visit, not a pollination at all, though the bee carried pollen from other flowers. Ophrys apifera is autogamous, and the yellow pollinia are soon falling down to perform self fertilisation.

Ophrys apifera var. basiliensis

The next surprise on this Ascension holiday was meeting Stefan Schwegler, who has described those bee orchids as Ophrys apifera var. basiliensis (in: Orchid Review 112/2004).

Basel Rheinhafen

He showed us a couple of other plants, among them a regular Ophrys apifera with its brown and yellow pigments as well as Platanthera chlorantha, Anacamptis pyramidalis and Dactylorhiza fuchsii. And he told us about the permanent struggle to conserve this special place against commercial interests of the port management. The population of Ophrys apifera var. basiliensis is declining, Stefan Schwegler explained, but still consists of about 100 plants. Most of them don’t flower every year, but wait for their moment to appear.

Wednesday, June 11th, 2014 | 

orchis_olbiensis

Orchis olbiensis has a colourful and a light variety, as it is stated by Kretzschmar/Eccarius/Dietrich in “Die Orchideengattungen Anacamptis, Orchis, Neotinea” (Buergel 2007, p. 322). The light variety has flower colours between rose and almost white – with a colourful lip pattern contrasting to the light background. The white-flowered plant comprises almost half of the populations in Spain, the authors observed – quite in difference to the almost purplish flowers of Orchis olbiensis in France.

Five years after visiting Orchis olbiensis for the first time in Southern France, I had now the chance to study Orchis olbiensis in Southern Spain, in the province of Malaga. Though in mid-April I’ve been quite late for this species, I found two albiflora forms of Orchis olbiensis in the limestone formation of the Torcal, near the small town of Antequera. The greater plant had nine almost white flowers with the fine purplish dots still conserved. In this habitat there were also growing Anacamptis papilionacea, Ophrys scolopax and Orchis mascula subsp. laxifloraeformis.

orchis_olbiensis_2

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Sunday, September 01st, 2013 | 

Dactylorhiza saccifera f. albiflora
Though Dactylorhiza fuchsii is developing albiflora forms more often than other European orchids, especially in certain regions (Ireland, some German regions), there are no mentions of white-flowered Dactylorhiza saccifera. Both species are diploid and related with each other. Exploring the marsh areas of the Smolikas mountain in mid-June in Northern Greece, I’ve seen this splendid Dactylorhiza saccifera f. albiflora on wet grounds, in a height of 1200 m, embedded in Marsh Horsetails (Equisetum palustre) and accompanied by Dactylorhiza baumanniana and Neottia ovata.
Dactylorhiza saccifera f. albiflora

In the same area there was also a white-flowered Gymnadenia conopsea with a slight purple hue.

Another highlight of the field trip to Northern Greece: three white-flowered Dactylorhiza cordigera on a clearing in the Vitsi mountain range near Kastoria. Those were surrounded by more than 1,000 cordigera plants with their characteristic deep purple colour.
Dactylorhiza saccifera f. albiflora

The picture of albiflora forms of late flowering orchids in Northern Greece was completed by a Dactylorhiza incarnata f. albiflora near the village of Chrisi:
Dactylorhiza incarnata

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Saturday, March 16th, 2013 | 

aho29_2 Two white flowered forms of Orchis are presented by Norbert Griebl in the latest edition of “Berichte aus den Arbeitskreisen Heimische Orchideen” (29/2012, 2, p.94-110). The contribution gives an overview of the seven Orchis species in Austria and shows their distribution maps. About Orchis spitzeli he notes: “In some years white or whitish plants appear at the location in Salzburg.” The paper has a photo of a second white-flowered plant, an Orchis mascula subsp. speciosa fo. albiflora. In the same edition of the “Berichte”, Adolf Riechelmann decribes his field trip to Ibiza and mentions an apochrome specimen of Ophrys dyris, found at the southern tip of the Mediterranean island. But the main article of the edition is contributed by Werner Hahn: In the footsteps of Christian von Steven. Searching orchids and pollinators in the Crimean mountains 2011 and 2012 – an exciting study of the orchid flora of the peninsula and as well as of a special chapter of the history of botany.

Tuesday, October 23rd, 2012 | 

On the occasion of a visit to Prague I looked up some specimens at the Charles University Herbarium (PRC). In order to help a friend, I searched for the holotype of a plant which was described by the Bohemian botanist Ignaz Friedrich Tausch as Ophrys purpurea (Flora; oder, (allgemeine) botanische Zeitung. Regensburg, Jena 1831) – now regarded as a synonym of Ophrys apifera or as Ophrys apifera var. tilaventina. The holotype was said to be in the herbarium in Prague, so I searched several packages of Ophrys specimen there, with the much appreciated help of PRC’s curator Jan Stepánek.

The holotype of Ophrys purpurea was not there, but I found an interesting specimen collected by the French botanist Jean Michel Gandoger (1850-1926):
Ophrys apifera
The description carries the information that Gandoger collected this plant in 1879 near Algier as Ophrys apifera f. elata, formerly described by Tausch as Ophrys purpurea:
Gandoger specimen

At the end of my visit I searched a further package of specimens with dried Orchis plants – hoping to find a albiflora specimen. Instead I detected a specimen collected by Tausch as Jan Stepánek confirmed by examining the hand-written label with the nomber “1470″ attached to the stipe of the plant:
Orchis mascula
A further label written by an unknown person has the information: “Orchis mascula L. vom berge Rhadisken bei Leitmeritz” – this information matches the catalogue of “Fundorte der Flora Boehmens nach weiland Professor Ignaz Friedrich Tausch’s Herbarium Florae Bohemicae alphabetisch geordnet von Johann Ott”, published 1859 in Prague:

So who was this Ignaz Friedrich Tausch? The Bohemian botanist was born on January 29th, 1793, in Udrči near Karlovy Vary. After his thesis about “De inflorescentia” (1835) he was director of the botanical garden of duke Canal de Malabaillas in Prague. He studied a broad spectre of plants and published “Bemerkungen über einige Arten der Gattung Paeonia” (1828) as well as his Flora Bohemiae (1831). Tausch was all his life rather poor, Stepánek told me. So he sold dried plants ot different herbariums. Tausch died on 8th September 1848 in Prague.

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Saturday, July 14th, 2012 | 

Nissekaer
Most orchid species don’t like acid boglands – but there are two rare exceptions: One is geographically widely distributed from Belgium to Northwestern Germany and Scandinavia and is mostly addressed as Dactylorhiza sphagnicola. The other grows only in the Danish region of Thy: Just a few hundred meters behind the coastline of the North Sea there is a population of white-flowered orchids which have been described by Henrik Ærenlund Pedersen as Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens (in: Nordic Journal of Botany, 2004). In 2007, Sebastian Sczepanski and Karel Kreutz argued it would be more appropriate to regard these plants as a subspecies to Dactylorhiza sphagnicola – while Pedersen und Mikael Hedrén are viewing sphagnicola only as another subspecies of Dactylorhiza majalis. Apart from colour, the morphological differences of the single flowers of Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. majalis (left), calcifugiens (middle) and sphagnicola (right) are difficult to discern:
src="http://www.albiflora.eu/images/science/majalis_calcifugiens_sphagnicola_sm.png" alt="Dactylorhiza" />The spur of Dactylorhiza sphagnicola is a bit longer than that of D. majalis subsp. calcifugiens. And the leaves of the latter are spreaded in a broader angle than those of D. sphagnicola:
Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens
The single flowers don’t show any hue of purple, even the pollinaria lack Anthocyanin. There is rather some yellowish hue in the center of the flower, slightly reminding of Dactylorhiza incarnata subsp. ochroleuca. In contrast to other populations of albiflora forms, e.g. with Dactylorhiza fuchsii, there are no gradual differences in the loss of colour pigments – all the plants are consistent in the white colour of their flowers.
Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens
Visiting the region, I found calcifugiens at two places, one near the small fisher village of Lild Strand with only three plants, the other further to the south at a bog called Nissekaer with about 150 plants. Surrounded by dunes this place is a natural depression (danish: “kaer”) with a length of about 1500 and a width of about 250 meters:
Google Earth image of Nissekaer
In mid-June the orchids are just in the beginning of flowering. Most Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens are growing at the edges of the wet places, not in the midst of them as it is the case with Dactylorhiza sphagnicola in the Venn moors in Belgium. And the calcifugiens plants are quite smaller, reaching just a height of up to 31 cm. Neighbouring plants are Sphagnum palustre, Equisetum fluviatile; Eriophorum angustifolium, Menyanthes trifoliata, Vaccinium oxycoccus, Calluna vulgaris, Trientalis europaea and even Drosera rotundifolia – most of those plants are clear indicators of acid soil. Among the shrubs there is the dominant Myrica gale, which is used by the brewery of the near-by town Thisted.
Drosera_rotundifolia
Some calcifugiens plants show a broader labellum, indicating a possible hybrid influence of Dactylorhiza maculata – similar to the sphagnicola plants of the Venn region.
Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens
Among all the white-flowered orchids in the Nissekaer bogland I found two purple-flowered plants which might be a hybrid of Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens and Dactylorhiza maculata (left) and a Dactylorhiza maculata still in buds (right):
Dactylorhiza calcifugiens x maculata
As a visiting and possibly pollinating insect of Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. calcifugiens there was a species of the genus Syrphida – as I’ve seen also with Dactylorhiza sphagnicola in the Venn moor (left)
Syrphida

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Monday, June 18th, 2012 | 

Cephalanthera damasonium It is well studied that Cephalanthera damasonium belongs to those orchids which can live without chlorophyllum – together with other species of the tribe of Neottieae or the genus Epipactis. While exploring a mixed forest near Lahnstein (Rhineland-Palatinate) together with Ingo Beller of the Arbeitskreis Heimische Orchideen (AHO) Rheinland-Pfalz, we found a group of three albino plants in addition to three green-leafed Cephalanthera damasonium. Of the apochromic plants one has two flowers, one only one flower and one has no flower. Those albino plants receive their organic carbon with the help of fungi. A study of V. Tranchida-Lombardo, M. Roy, E. Bugot, G. Santoro, Ü.Püttsepp, M. Selosse and S. Cozzolino, published in 2010 in Plant Biology suggests that the albino Cephalanthera damasonium may be viewed as “an intermediate step in the evolutionary emergence of mycoheterotrophy”, or of the ability to be nourished both by fungi and photosynthesis. By means of genetic analyses the authors declare: “Albinos could be either permanent mutants, as suggested by phenotype stability over the years, or transitory phenotypic stages, in which genes involved in the photosynthetic pathway can switch off depending on micro-environmental conditions (e.g., the amount of C resources provided by the nearby fungal mycelia or tree roots) that prevent greening.”

Wednesday, May 30th, 2012 | 

Dactylorhiza fuchsii f. albiflora

In addition to the Irish region of The Burren and the Hesse location of Biebergemuend there is a further location where Dactylorhiza fuchsii tends to white-flowered forms in big numbers: In a birch grove near the village of Wolken in the upper Moselle valley there are several hundred plants with a clear trend to bright and white flowers. A count of a random sample resulted in 13 per cent of white flowers without any markings on the labellum. Further 38 per cent of the plants have a white base colour with pink marks. The differences in flower colours correspond with the results found in the other two regions and are even a little bit more accentuated. These results may give further evidence to the assumption that Dactylorhiza fuchsii is in the midst of an evolutionary process which also changes the phenotype of the species.

Percentages of flower colours in different locations
different locations of Dactylorhiza fuchsii

The following tableau shows the wide range of fuchsii flowers found on that location. The brightest forms also lack the Anthocyanine pigments in the pollinaria as the lowest row of examples and the following macro photo demonstrate.
Dactylorhiza fuchsii

Dactylorhiza fuchsii f. albiflora

The only other orchids in the forest are Platanthera chlorantha and an Epipactis spec. – while in the other two locations with abundant albiflora forms of Dactylorhiza fuchsii there are also the earlier flowering Orchis mascula (Burren) and Dactylorhiza majalis (Biebergemuend), both flowering in pink and both – as well as Dactylorhiza fuchsii – trying to attract pollinators with nectar deception. Among other plants in the birch forest, a former gravel-pit and now a nature reserve called “Kuhstiebel”, are Orthilia secunda, Fragaria vesca and Tussilago farfara. But the dominating plant there as well as in a nearby marsh area is Dactylorhiza fuchsii with mostly spotted leaves – even in the case of the white-flowered plants: Dactylorhiza fuchsii f. albiflora

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Tuesday, May 01st, 2012 | 

Two specialists of the orchid flora on Corsica, Wolfram Foelsche and Klaus Cord-Landwehr, have described a new Dactylorhiza species: Dactylorhiza cyrnea belongs to the group of Dactylorhiza maculata and shares its characteristics of a tetraploid set of chromosomes. In their article “Dactylorhiza cyrnea und die Taxa der Gattung Dactylorhiza auf Korsika”, published in the Journal Europäischer Orchideen (Vol. 44, Heft 1, April 2012), the authors review the findings of Dactylorhiza insularis, Dactylorhiza sambucina and Dactylorhiza saccifera on Corsica and note that there is no Dactylorhiza majalis confirmed for this Mediterranean island. The plants described as Dactylorhiza cyrnea is morphologically similar to the diploid Dactylorhiza fuchsii. They are rather elongated and grow in humid locations. The leafs are mostly vaguely spotted but may also be unspotted. The flowers have a markedly thin spur (contrasting the thick spur of D. saccifera) which is shorter than the ovary. Their colour is a bright pink, with a purple labellum pattern. The population described by the authors “offers a very consistent appearance” – but there are also white flowered plants occasionally, the authors note. The photo above on the right, generously sent to me by Wolfram Foelsche, is also included in the article.

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Sunday, October 23rd, 2011 | 

Anacamptis morio
Oops, that’s a quite special Anacamptis morio which Norbert Griebl has found near Sittendorf, southwest of Vienna. In addition to the absence of anthocyanins (which happens quite often with this species) the lip has the same form as the sepals, with green veins. Here, not only the colour of the flower has changed, but also its morphological pattern.

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